In the process of making this weapon, there will be no much difficulty involved and the process is not complex and not expensive. In making a biological weapons there is no need for large facilities.
Natural cloning[ edit ] Cloning is a natural form of reproduction that has allowed life forms to spread for hundreds of millions of years. It is the reproduction method used by plantsfungiand bacteriaand is also the way that clonal colonies reproduce themselves.
Molecular cloning Molecular cloning Research paper on animal cloning to the process of making multiple molecules.
Cloning is commonly used to amplify DNA fragments containing whole genesbut it can also be used to amplify any DNA sequence such as promotersnon-coding sequences and randomly fragmented DNA.
It is used in a wide array of biological experiments and practical applications ranging from genetic fingerprinting to large scale protein production. Occasionally, the term cloning is misleadingly used to refer to the identification of the chromosomal location of a gene associated with a particular phenotype of interest, such as in positional cloning.
In practice, localization of the gene to a chromosome or genomic region does not necessarily enable one to isolate or amplify the relevant genomic sequence.
To amplify any DNA sequence in a living organism, that sequence must be linked to an origin of replicationwhich is a sequence of DNA capable of directing the propagation of itself and any linked sequence.
However, a number of other features are needed, and a variety of specialised cloning vectors small piece of DNA into which a foreign DNA fragment can be inserted exist that allow protein productionaffinity taggingsingle stranded RNA or DNA production and a host of other molecular biology tools.
Subsequently, a ligation procedure is used where the amplified fragment is inserted into a vector piece of DNA. The vector which is frequently circular is linearised using restriction enzymesand incubated with the fragment of interest under appropriate conditions with an enzyme called DNA ligase.
Following ligation the vector with the insert of interest is transfected into cells. A number of alternative techniques are available, such as chemical sensitivation of cells, electroporationoptical injection and biolistics. Finally, the transfected cells are cultured. As the aforementioned procedures are of particularly low efficiency, there is a need to identify the cells that have been successfully transfected with the vector construct containing the desired insertion sequence in the required orientation.
Modern cloning vectors include selectable antibiotic resistance markers, which allow only cells in which the vector has been transfected, to grow. Nevertheless, these selection steps do not absolutely guarantee that the DNA insert is present in the cells obtained.
Further investigation of the resulting colonies must be required to confirm that cloning was successful. Cloning unicellular organisms[ edit ] Cloning cell-line colonies using cloning rings Cloning a cell means to derive a population of cells from a single cell.
In the case of unicellular organisms such as bacteria and yeast, this process is remarkably simple and essentially only requires the inoculation of the appropriate medium. However, in the case of cell cultures from multi-cellular organisms, cell cloning is an arduous task as these cells will not readily grow in standard media.
A useful tissue culture technique used to clone distinct lineages of cell lines involves the use of cloning rings cylinders. At an early growth stage when colonies consist of only a few cells, sterile polystyrene rings cloning ringswhich have been dipped in grease, are placed over an individual colony and a small amount of trypsin is added.
Cloned cells are collected from inside the ring and transferred to a new vessel for further growth. Cloning stem cells[ edit ] Main article: Somatic-cell nuclear transfer Somatic-cell nuclear transferknown as SCNT, can also be used to create embryos for research or therapeutic purposes.
The most likely purpose for this is to produce embryos for use in stem cell research.
This process is also called "research cloning" or "therapeutic cloning. While a clonal human blastocyst has been created, stem cell lines are yet to be isolated from a clonal source. The process begins by removing the nucleus containing the DNA from an egg cell and inserting a nucleus from the adult cell to be cloned.
Is Animal Cloning Morally Right? Animal cloning refers to a biotechnological process where the reproduction of an entire animal occurs from a single cell of a parent animal (Panno 6). The reproduced animal becomes a clone, which is an exact duplicate of the parent animal. The focus is on the origin of cloning, its meaning, and human cloning as well as the moral, ethical and legal issues surrounding human cloning. The paper goes further on folk wisdom and pregnancy. Cloning in general refers . Hwang Woo-suk (Korean: 황우석, born January 29, ) is a South Korean veterinarian and researcher. He was a professor of theriogenology and biotechnology at Seoul National University (dismissed on March 20, ) who became infamous for fabricating a series of experiments, which appeared in high-profile journals, in the field of stem cell research.. Until November , he was considered.
The reprogrammed cell begins to develop into an embryo because the egg reacts with the transferred nucleus. The embryo will become genetically identical to the patient. This process can either add or delete specific genomes of farm animals. A key point to remember is that cloning is achieved when the oocyte maintains its normal functions and instead of using sperm and egg genomes to replicate, the oocyte is inserted into the donor's somatic cell nucleus.As the highest-ranked open access journal in its field, Genome Biology publishes outstanding research that advances the fields of biology and biomedicine from a genomic and post-genomic perspective.
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Ethics and Cloning Ethics and Cloning Research Papers look at a sample of an order placed for a reasoning and problem solving paper.
Format for Ethics and Cloning Research Paper: Essay Outline (1 – 2 pages) ranging from light bulbs to the ability to clone animals.
Human pluripotent stem cells robustly engraft into both cattle and pig pre-implantation blastocysts, but show limited chimeric contribution to post-implantation pig embryos. Free animal cloning papers, essays, and research papers. Chinese scientists have cloned monkeys using the same technique that produced Dolly the sheep two decades ago, breaking a technical barrier that could open the door to copying humans.
Generation of genetically uniform non-human primates may help to establish animal models for primate biology and biomedical research. In this study, we have successfully cloned cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT).We found that injection of H3K9me3 demethylase Kdm4d mRNA and treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A at one-cell.