Literature review on malaria in nigeria

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Literature review on malaria in nigeria

Abstract Asymptomatic malaria parasitemia has been documented in donor blood in West Africa. The retrieved studies were then grouped, based on the type of study, into systematic reviews, original articles, and case reports.

Commentaries and letters to editors were excluded from the study. Finally, the studies were synthesized based on their themes; detection of MPs in blood donors, studies on MPs in blood recipients, prevention of transfusion-transmitted infections and malaria.

In each category, studies from Nigeria and other malaria-endemic African countries were analyzed first, then Asian studies, followed by European and American studies.

From the reviewed literature, the overall occurrence of blood transfusion malaria in transfusion recipients is low despite the fact that the potential risk of transmission is quite high as evidenced by the large proportion of blood donors harboring MPs.

While several methods are being utilized to reduce the risk of transmission of transfusion malaria, their cost-effectiveness limits wide-range application. However, the riboflavin-ultraviolet light-based parasite reduction system has the potential to revolutionize the incidence of transfusion-transmitted malaria.

Therefore, malaria control and eradication interventions need to be strengthened to reduce the rate of infection in the potential blood donors. Malaria, transfusion, transfusion-transmitted How to cite this article: Ann Nigerian Med ; The transmission of malaria by blood transfusion was one of the first recorded incidents of transfusion-transmitted infection.

The search results were perused and studies relevant to the subject matter and that were available in full text were retrieved.

In each category, studies from malaria-endemic African countries were analyzed first, then Asian studies, followed by nonmalaria-endemic regions. Epidemiology of Malaria and Transfusion Malaria In3.

In malaria-endemic regions, most of the data obtained are from potential blood donors; therefore, it only measures the potential risk of blood transfusion-induced malaria. Two studies were conducted in high malaria transmission season and 13 in both high and low seasons.

In the other two studies, the season was not stated. The total number of donated blood units tested for malaria across all the studies was 33, with a range of 50—12, The median prevalence of asymptomatic parasitemia was Only one study established the prevalence of malaria parasitemia in transfusion recipients, with a level of 3.

A key role of WHO’s Global Malaria Programme is to monitor and respond to changing trends in the global malaria landscape. GMP regularly convenes the world’s leading malaria experts to review available evidence and advise on solutions to control and eliminate malaria. The following represents a summary of information about projects which were identified in the review of the literature. Our intent has been to review projects which have been planned or organized to use traditional practitioners (TPs) as community workers in one or more aspects of primary health care. A comprehensive, coeducational Catholic High school Diocese of Wollongong - Albion Park Act Justly, love tenderly and walk humbly with your God Micah

Ibhanesebhor [25] also found two cases of transfusion-induced malaria among neonates admitted for septicemic illnesses.

All the patients were tested for MPs pretransfusion and were negative. The source of posttransfusion MPs has been further elucidated by the studies of Owusu-Ofori et al. From the study of Owusu-Ofori et al. It is also noteworthy that, unlike the other studies from malaria-endemic regions where the suspected transfusion-malaria cases were symptomatic, the genotypically confirmed transfusion malaria case was asymptomatic.

In addition, many recipients had MPs before the transfusion. The predominance of these species contrasts with most of the West African studies found, [14][16][19][29] where Plasmodium falciparum was universal and probably mirrors the dominant species causing natural infection in the area.

Transfusion malaria in nonendemic countries Prevalence of transfusion malaria has reduced in Europe since the s. The blood was traced to a Ghanaian donor.

Literature review on malaria in nigeria

Two weeks later, he developed a fever and was diagnosed with malaria. Another study from the UK conducted between and reviewed reports of deaths and major complications after blood transfusion. Some researchers from Lagos, Abakaliki, and Nnewi found prevalence of A study by Diop et al.

The sensitivity of the antigen-based tests may also affect the reported values. In addition, all the donors were asymptomatic. Malaria can also be acquired as a congenital infection via vertical transmission across the placenta from an infected pregnant woman to the fetus.

These factors will influence the time needed to build up parasitemia sufficient to cause symptoms. IFA is highly sensitive and specific although it is time-consuming and subjective since it does not necessarily indicate a recent infection.

Treatment of Transfusion Malaria Antimalarial combination therapy is now recommended by the WHO for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria to counter the threat of resistance associated with monotherapies.

PubMed comprises more than 28 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. Factors Responsible for High Infant and Maternal Mortality in Nigeria; A Case Study of Abakaliki, Ebonyi State. Introduction. High infant and maternal mortality death is a tragedy, many children are rendered motherless, such children are deprived of maternal care which goes a long way to affect adversely both their physiological and psychological development. Therefore, whenever in doubt, ask for a peripheral smear study, particularly for species identification. There are instances of cases diagnosed as vivax malaria on the QBC, but soon after developed fatal complications of falciparum malaria.

Chloroquine was used successfully to treat blood transfusion-induced malaria in the pre-ACTs era, [3][24][39] and since there is no exoerythrocytic phase, tissue schizonticides such as primaquine are unnecessary.Literature Review to Inform the Aflatoxin Country Assessments: Tanzania and Nigeria May 29, Malaria and HIV/AIDS may also be affected by aflatoxin levels, though to date the evidence is inconclusive.

level of review in Nigeria, and will require input from the Nigeria Agency for Food and Drug. literature review of nigeria capital development on economic growth ECONOMICS The literature of endogenous growth theory has stimulated economists’ interest in the empirical evidence available from cross-country comparisons, bearing on the main-level relationship between human capital formation and the growth rate of real output.

Ethnopharmacological relevance. Because about 50% of the Zimbabwean population is at risk of contracting malaria each year, the majority of people, especially in rural areas, use traditional plant-based medicines to combat malaria.

Yellow Fever & Malaria Information, by Country

Yellow Fever 1 The official WHO list of countries with risk of YFV transmission can be found in Table Proof of yellow fever vaccination should be required only if traveling from a country on the WHO list, unless otherwise specified.

Therefore, whenever in doubt, ask for a peripheral smear study, particularly for species identification. There are instances of cases diagnosed as vivax malaria on the QBC, but soon after developed fatal complications of falciparum malaria.

From the reviewed literature, the overall occurrence of blood transfusion malaria in transfusion recipients is low despite the fact that the potential risk of transmission is quite high as evidenced by the large proportion of blood donors harboring MPs.

Demographics of Africa - Wikipedia