Lerche III We live in a world that is simultaneously shrinking and expanding, growing closer and farther apart National borders are increasingly irrelevant. And yet globalism is by no means triumphant. Tribalisms of all kinds flourish.
Of the crore Indians, The census of India, defines urban settlement as: A minimum population of persons ; b. A density of population of at least persons per square kilometer The first category of urban units are known as Statutory town.
These were identified on the basis of census data. Cities are urban areas with more thanpopulation. Urban areas beloware called towns in India Similarly Census of India defines: An urban agglomeration is a continuous urban spread constituting a town and its adjoining outgrowths OGsor two or more physically contiguous towns together with or without outgrowths of such towns.
An Urban Agglomeration must consist of at least a statutory town and its total population i. In varying local conditions, there were similar other combinations which have been treated as urban agglomerations satisfying the basic condition of contiguity.
An Out Growth OG is a viable unit such as a village or a hamlet or an enumeration block made up of such village or hamlet and clearly identifiable in terms of its boundaries and location. Some of the examples are railway colony, university campus, port area, military camps, etc.
While determining the outgrowth of a town, it has been ensured that it possesses the urban features in terms of infrastructure and amenities such as pucca roads, electricity, taps, drainage system for disposal of waste water etc.
Urban development is a state subject. At state level there are respective ministries, but according to 74th Constitutional Amendment act, it is mandatory for every state to form ULBs and devolve power, conduct regular election, etc.
Under 12 schedule of Indian constitution18 such functions have been defined which are to be performed by ULBs and for that states should support the ULBs through finances and decentralization of power, for more autonomy. But this is not uniform throughout all the states and still more is need to be done to empower ULBs in India.
Urban areas are managed by urban local bodies ULBswho look after the service delivery and grievance redressal of citizens.
There are eight type of urban local government in India- municipal corporation municipality, notified area committee, town area committee, cantonment board, township, port trust and special purpose agencies.
Migration is the key process underlying growth of urbanisation; and the process of urbanization is closely related with rural to urban migration of people. In most developing countries of the world where rate of urban growth is relatively higher the urban-ward migration is usually high.
Rural to urban migration is by far the major component of urbanisation and is the chief mechanism by which urbanisation trends all the world-over has been accomplished After independence, urbanization in India is increasing at very high pace, but at the same time there are some problems, which are becoming barriers for balance, equitable and inclusive development.
History of Urbanization in India In 88, the first municipal corporation in India was set up at Madras. InMunicipal Corporation were set up in Bombay and Calcutta. In ,a resolution was passed and according to which, panchayat were to be formed at village level, district boards, taluq boards and municipalities also came into existence.
Urbanization since independence has been focused through respective five year plans as follows: First two plan focused on institution and organization building and same was instructed to the states to do.
Delhi development Authority, Town and country planning organization came during this period. Third plan was turning point in urban planning history, as it emphasized on importance of towns and cities in balanced regional development.
So, it advised urban planning to adopt regional approach. It also emphasized the need for urban land regulation, checking of urban land prices, preparation of master plan, etc.
Forth plancontinued with the theme of third plan and development plans for 72 urban areas were undertaken. Regional studies in respect of metropolitan regions around Delhi, Mumbai and Calcutta were initiated. During fifth plan, urban land ceiling act was passed in It also advised the state governments to create metropolitan planning regions to take care of the growing areas outside administrative city limits.
Mumbai metropolitan region development authority MMRDA in and Housing and urban development cooperation in were established. It also emphasized the urban and industrial decentralization.
The sixth five year plan stressed the need to develop small and medium sized towns less than 1 lakhand a scheme of Integrated development of Small and Medium towns IDSMT was launched in by central government. During the seventh plan, some important institutional developments were done, which shaped the urban development policy and planning.
The National commission on urbanization submitted its report in and 65th constitutional amendment was introduced in Lok Sabha inthis was first attempt to give urban local bodies a constitutional status with three tier federal structure.
But it was not passed and was finally passed in as 74th constitutional amendment act and came into force in During Eighth plan, the Mega city scheme was introduced in covering five mega cities of Mumbai, Calcutta, Chennai, Bangalore and Hyderabad.
Also IDSMT scheme was revamped through it infrastructural development programs for boosting employment generation for diverting migration from big cities to the small and medium towns.
The ninth plan, continued with the schemes of the eighth plan and also emphasized on decentralization and financial autonomy of urban local bodies. Urban self-employment program and 2.Urbanization and growth go together: no country has ever reached middle- Industrialization is at the heart of a larger, more complex process often desig- UN publication on population reveals deep skepticism about urbanization among policymakers in developing countries: 88 percent of .
Impact of Industrialization, Urbanization and Globalization Among Thetribals in India. Topics: Tribe THE IMPACT OF INDUSTRIALIZATION, URBANIZATION AND GLOBALIZATION ON TRIBALS: THE POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE IMPACT OF CHRISTIAN MISSION FOR CHURCH GROWTH IN .
London will allow the discussions on urbanization and industrialization to complement each other. Analyze the implication of globalization for local between the form of industrialization in Britain and India. (b) Relationship between handicrafts and industrial production, formal and informal.
The West in the Age of Industrialization and Imperialism As far-reaching as the transformation of Western civilization since the Renaissance had been, no one around could have predicted the even more profound changes that would occur in the nineteenth century.
Economic Geography studies the impact of economic activities on the landscape and investigates reasons behind the locations of economic activities. The economic history of the United States following the Civil War is a good reference point.
Between and , the United States economy increased nearly sevenfold, and real incomes during this period increased at a compound annual rate of more than 2 percent.