Findings showed that ads and brands in ads with low sex appeal were rated more favorably than those with high sex appeal. Results also showed that the effects of two-way interaction between sex appeal and model gender on attitudes toward the ad and the brand were significant.
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Abstract Background Policy-making is a dynamic process involving the interplay of various factors. Power and its role are some of its core components. Though power exerts a profound role in policy-making, empirical evidence suggests that health policy analysis has paid only limited attention to the role of power, particularly in policy dialogues.
Methods This exploratory study, which used qualitative methods, had the main aim of learning about and understanding policy dialogues in five African countries and how power influences such processes. Data were collected using key informant interviews.
An interview guide was developed with standardised questions and probes on the policy dialogues in each country. This paper utilises these data plus document review to understand how power was manifested during the policy dialogues.
Reference is made to the Arts and Tatenhove conceptual framework on power dimensions to understand how power featured during the policy dialogues in African health contexts. Arts and Tatenhove conceptualise power in policy-making in relational, dispositional and structural layers.
Results Our study found that power was applied positively during the dialogues to prioritise agendas, fast-track processes, reorganise positions, focus attention on certain items and foster involvement of the community. Power was applied negatively during the dialogues, for example when position was used to control and shape dialogues, which limited innovation, and when knowledge power was used to influence decisions and the direction of the dialogues.
Transitive power was used to challenge the government to think of implementation issues often forgotten during policy-making processes.
Dispositional power was the most complex form of power expressed both overtly and covertly. Structural power was manifested socially, culturally, politically, legally and economically. Conclusions This study shows that we need to be cognisant of the role of power during policy dialogues and put mechanisms in place to manage its influence.
There is need for more research to determine how to channel power influence policy-making processes positively, for example through interactive policy dialogues.
Policy dialogue, Policy development, Power, Low income countries Background Policy-making is a dynamic process involving the interplay of various factors, with power, one of its core components, at the heart of every policy process [ 1 ]. Fundamental to any policy process are the roles of the actors.
The actors influence the process through their knowledge, experiences, beliefs and power [ 1 ]. Although power has a profound role in policy-making, empirical evidence suggests that health policy analysis has paid only limited attention to the issue of power in low and middle income countries [ 2 ].
Further, power is rarely examined because this is difficult, requiring a combination of empirical evidence and theorising. The definition of power is ambiguous too, especially when it is used in operational terms for research [ 3 ].
Dhal [ 3 ] states that the way power is defined and understood has implications in policy-making.
Below is an essay on "Evaluate the Influence Different Stakeholders Exert in One Organisation." from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples. Outline And Evaluate The Influence Of Different Types Of Structure Of Organisations; Citations. MLA Citation5/5(1). Task 3 - Evaluate the influence different stakeholders exert in one organisation. (D1) Deadline: Friday 14th Oct For one of your organisation's find an example of how stakeholder groups have exerted influence over the organisation. Evaluate the impact of their actions on the organisation. For D1 learners should evaluate the influence exerted by the different types of stakeholders for one organisation. This could be through using one organisation and two different phases in the economic cycle or using two organisations operating in different economic environments.
There are conflicting views on power dynamics, including on the common assumption that power is and should always be top-down. Many of the debates around policy processes characterise them as top-down with little need for the involvement of the ground level implementers.
Furthermore, the probability of a prescribed policy being disputed is much higher if the implementers are not involved in its making [ 5 ].
Policy implementers tend to lie at the bottom end of the policy-making spectrum and their involvement in policy discussions is generally limited [ 5 — 7 ].
This has led experts in policy to suggest the use of other approaches to policy-making and implementation such as the top-bottom-bottom-top strategies and the bottom-up approach.The power and influence of stakeholders: The extent to which stakeholders affect the activities of an organisation depends on the relationship between the stakeholder and the organisation.
Mendelow’s matrix provides a way of mapping stakeholders based on the power to affect the organisation and their interest in doing so. There are two types of companies. Private companies have access to less capital because their shares are not traded on the Stock Exchange. factors a major influence on the organisation is what the competition is doing.
A SLEPT analysis is an analysis of key changes in an organisation's environment. It is sometimes referred to as scanning. The main aim of this study is to analyze the influence exerted by different factors on the extent to which accounting programs are Descriptors: Accounting, Audits (Verification), Business Administration Education, Masters Programs.
One line of research is an attempt to discover the extent to which leadership processes are the same or unique across different types of organizations, levels of management, and cultures. of the influence, the manner in which the influence is exerted, and the outcome of the influence attempt.
be considered to deal with these.
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Learning lessons for evaluating complexity across the nexus: A meta-evaluation of projects A CECAN Evaluation and Policy Practice Note for policy analysts and evaluators.
Our findings indicate that different routes of influence emerged depending on the stage of the policy process. Control of financial resources was the most commonly identified route by which donors influenced priority setting and policy implementation.