Institutional Constraints and Deforestation: An Application to Mexico Study from: Following Norththis article hypothesizes that effective rural institutions may impose additional costs on tropical deforestation through agricultural conversion.
Introduction Despite 50 years of development experience, fundamental questions remain unanswered. The world still lacks a comprehensive theoretical framework that adequately explains such phenomenon as the accelerating velocity of development exhibited by East Asian countries, the failure of Malthusian projections, the growing contribution of non-material resources not subject to depletion, the apparent failure of market policies in the transition of Eastern Europe, and conflicting predictions about the future of work based on the contrary recent experiences of North America and Western Europe.
A profusion of economic theories provide explanations for specific expressions of development, but none unite the pieces into a unified theory that adequately defines the central principles, process and stages of development.
The formulation of a comprehensive theory of development would make conscious the world's experience over the past years, reveal enormous untapped potentials and vastly accelerate the speed of future progress. This paper is identifies the central principle of development and traces its expression in different fields, levels and stages of expression.
Development is a function of society's capacity to organize human energies and productive resources to respond to opportunities and challenges. The paper traces the stages in the emergence of higher, more complex, more productive levels of social organization through the historical stages of nomadic hunting, rural agrarian, urban, commercial, industrial and post-industrial societies.
It examines the process by which new activities are introduced by pioneers, imitated, resisted, accepted, organized, institutionalized and assimilated into the culture. Organizational development takes place on a foundation of three levels of infrastructure - physical, organizational and mental.
Four types of resources contribute to development, of which only the most material are inherently limited in nature. The productivity of resources increases enormously as the level of organization and input of knowledge rises. Historically, social development has passed through three progressive, but overlapping stages in which three different components of human consciousness served as primary engines for social advancement.
The paper draws parallels between the catalytic role of population growth, urbanization, the spread of a money economy, and, most recently, Internet as accelerators of the development process.
Looking backward, the development achievements of the world over the past five decades have been unprecedented and remarkable. Looking forward into the next century, daunting developmental challenges confront humanity. Despite 50 years of intensive effort, the world is still blindly groping for adequate answers to fundamental questions about development and for effective strategies to accelerate the process.
Recent accomplishments point to the possibility of converting these 50 years of experience into a conscious and consistent theoretical knowledge. Impending challenges point to the need for a comprehensive theory of social development that will lead to the formulation of more effective strategies.
Observations and Questions about Recent Development Experience A few observations highlight some striking aspects of recent development experience that need to be theoretically understood and some perplexing questions that need to be answered to meet the opportunities and challenges of the coming years.
The world has made greater progress in eradicating poverty over the past 50 years than during the previous Over the past five decades, average per capita income in the world more than tripled, in spite of unprecedented population growth.
In developing countries, real per capita consumption rose by 70 percent between and What have been the principle reasons for this phenomenal progress? What do these results augur for the coming decades?An acronym is an abbreviation coined from the initial letter of each successive word in a term or phrase.
In general, an acronym made up solely from the first letter of the major words in the expanded form is rendered in all capital letters (NATO from North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an exception would be ASEAN for Association of Southeast Asian Nations). a. general b. duties of generators c.
general requirements for permits and permit applications d. permit review procedures and. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Educating for a Sustainable Future A Transdisciplinary Vision for Concerted Action.
Converting Agricultural Wastes for Useful Purpose - authorSTREAM Presentation. Converting Municipal Solid Wastes to Drop-In Hydrocarbon Fuels Dhairya D.
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