Italy and Spain First Things First The lectures on seventeenth-century European art usually come after the classes on the Renaissance in Italy and the North. At this point in a chronological art history survey, the students will have learned about a number of key ideas and themes such as the renewed interest in Greek and Roman humanism and naturalism, the intersection of art and science during the Renaissance, the religious reform movements that reshaped European culture, and the emergent globalism that linked Europe, Africa, Asia and the Americas. These themes provide interesting contrasts and continuities with the Baroque.
Baroque and late Baroque, or Rococo, are loosely defined terms, generally applied by common consent to European art of the period from the early 17th century to the midth century.
The origin of the term The term Baroque probably ultimately derived from the Italian word barocco, which philosophers used during the Middle Ages to describe an obstacle in schematic logic. Subsequently the word came to denote any contorted idea or involuted process of Baroque naturalism in spain.
In art criticism the word Baroque came to be used to describe anything irregular, bizarre, or otherwise departing from established rules and proportions.
This biased view of 17th-century art styles was held with few modifications by critics from Johann Winckelmann to John Ruskin and Jacob Burckhardtand until the late 19th century the term always carried the implication of odd, grotesque, exaggerated, and overdecorated. Three main tendencies of the era Three broader cultural and intellectual tendencies had a profound impact on Baroque art as well as Baroque music.
The first of these was the emergence of the Counter-Reformation and the expansion of its domain, both territorially and intellectually. By the last decades of the 16th century the refined, courtly style known as Mannerism had ceased to be an effective means of expression, and its inadequacy for religious art was being increasingly felt in artistic circles.
To this end the church adopted a conscious artistic program whose art products would make an overtly emotional and sensory appeal to the faithful. The Baroque style that evolved from this program was paradoxically both sensuous and spiritual; while a naturalistic treatment rendered the religious image more accessible to the average churchgoer, dramatic and illusory effects were used to stimulate piety and devotion and convey an impression of the splendour of the divine.
Baroque church ceilings thus dissolved in painted scenes that presented vivid views of the infinite to the observer and directed the senses toward heavenly concerns. The second tendency was the consolidation of absolute monarchiesaccompanied by a simultaneous crystallization of a prominent and powerful middle class, which now came to play a role in art patronage.
Baroque palaces were built on an expanded and monumental scale in order to display the power and grandeur of the centralized state, a phenomenon best displayed in the royal palace and gardens at Versailles.
This spring, ArtScapades moves past the Renaissance and presents three lectures exploring art’s Baroque Period. PLEASE REGISTER In Spanish and French Baroque, ArtScapades looks at how El Greco, Diego Velázquez, Nicolas Poussin, Georges de La Tour, and+ Read More ArtScapades Presents Spanish and French Baroque: From Powerful Naturalism to. Theatre - Baroque theatres and staging: The combination of two artistic innovations—the formulation of the laws of perspective in the 15th century and the production of the first opera in —provided the foundation for the Baroque theatre, which was to last until the 19th century. During this era all countries were brought into the same orbit, although Italy remained the primary inspiration. baroque naturalism in Spain: Velazquez in Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez we see a moment in the life of the spanish court the king and queen are reflect in the back mirror- we are honored by actually occupying their position.
Yet at the same time the development of a picture market for the middle class and its taste for realism may be seen in the works of the brothers Le Nain and Georges de La Tour in France and in the varied schools of 17th-century Dutch painting.
For a detailed discussion of this phenomenon, see Rembrandt van Rijn. The Lamentation over St. Courtesy of the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin - Preussischer Kulturbesitz The third tendency was a new interest in nature and a general broadening of human intellectual horizons, spurred by developments in science and by explorations of the globe.
These simultaneously produced a new sense both of human insignificance particularly abetted by the Copernican displacement of the Earth from the centre of the universe and of the unsuspected complexity and infinitude of the natural world.
The development of 17th-century landscape painting, in which humans are frequently portrayed as minute figures in a vast natural setting, is indicative of this changing awareness of the human condition. Architecture, painting, and sculpture The arts present an unusual diversity in the Baroque period, chiefly because currents of naturalism and classicism coexisted and intermingled with the typical Baroque style.
Indeed, Annibale Carracci and Caravaggiothe two Italian painters who decisively broke with Mannerism in the s and thus helped usher in the Baroque style, painted, respectively, in classicist and realist modes.
A specifically Baroque style of painting arose in Rome in the s and culminated in the monumental painted ceilings and other church decorations of Pietro da CortonaGuido ReniIl GuercinoDomenichinoand countless lesser artists.
The greatest of the Baroque sculptor-architects was Gian Lorenzo Berniniwho designed both the baldachin with spiral columns above the altar of St. French architecture is even less recognizably Baroque in its pronounced qualities of subtlety, elegance, and restraint.
Baroque tenets were enthusiastically adopted in staunchly Roman Catholic Spain, however, particularly in architecture.Realism, sometimes called naturalism, in the arts is generally the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, or implausible, exotic, and supernatural elements.
Realism has been prevalent in the arts at many periods, and can be in large part a matter of technique and training, and the avoidance of stylization. The system of perspective we take for granted today is a relatively recent discovery in artistic history. Before the 14th Century little to no attempts were made to realistically depict the three dimensional world in art in the way in which we are now accustomed to seeing it.
In addition to the two main characteristics of Baroque painting outlined above: (1) grandeur or sensuality - see, for instance, religious works by Peter Paul Rubens, or the elegant portraits of Anthony Van Dyck; and (2) strong emotional content - see in particular, works by Spanish Baroque Artists such as Ribera, Zurbaran, even Velazquez; we should note two other important but contradictory tendencies: (3) .
The Baroque style began as somewhat of a continuation of the Renaissance. Later, however, scholars of the time began to see the drastic differences between the two styles as the Renaissance style gave way to Baroque art. Baroque architecture, sculpture, and painting of a dramatic nature were.
Cave dwellers were the earliest artists. Colored drawings of animals, dating from about 30, to 10, B.C., have been found on the walls of caves in southern France and in Spain.
In Seville, painting evolved rapidly from Renaissance classicism to the naturalism of the Baroque, as exemplified in works by Francisco Pacheco (), Juan de las Roelas (), and Francisco de Herrera the Elder ().