In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: The Criminalization of the State in Africa. Chabal, Patrick And Jean-pascal Daloz.
Kingdon proposed a theoretical response to two questions often raised by those who wish to understand the process of setting public policy agendas: What shapes the emergence of certain ideas over others?
And why are certain ideas used by governments to formulate public policies, and not others? To answer these questions, Kingdon used an approach defined by three streams. According to Kingdon, public policies emerge when policy entrepreneurs seize windows of opportunity to couple a problem stream with a political stream.
The policy stream is also present, but it is loosely coupled with the other two streams. Without this coupling, no policy can emerge. Problems remain unresolved; solutions may exist or be promoted by various stakeholders, but there is no receptivity to them. The national mood or current ideas cannot be capitalized on, because there are no recognized problems or solutions.
But when a window of opportunity appears in the problem or policy streams, a policy entrepreneur will do everything possible to couple these streams in order for a public policy to emerge.
Problem solving is not utopian, as there must be known solutions for it to be possible, and so this third stream is not of secondary importance. Entrepreneurs may emerge from any of the streams, depending on the situation and the degree to which a certain stream predominates.
Kingdon also states that the occurrence of a window of opportunity in a given area may increase the probability of another window opening in a related area.
However, the framework has only been validated in the context of wealthy countries for setting the agendas of national and international policies. Extending this interpretation, Lemieux suggests that while the policy formulation stage involves coupling the policy stream with the political stream, implementation involves coupling the policy stream with the problem stream.
In both cases, the third stream, that is, the politics stream, is always present but is loosely coupled. Although the scientific relevance and theoretical value of this extension have been demonstrated, they have only been empirically validated once in Canada.
In order to verify the proposition coming from the extension of the stream framework to understand an implementation gap in West Africa, a case study has been done in Burkina Faso. Although more empirical research needs to be done in order to definitively validate this theoretical extension, some research propositions have emerged from the study: Implementation of a public policy depends primarily on a coupling of the problem stream with the policy stream.
If implementation does result from a coupling of the problem and policy streams, it can be completely successful only if the political stream is favorable to it.
Institutions play an essential role in the political stream of public policies when policy agenda setting and formulation are international in origin. The occurrence and seizing of opportunities in order to find solutions to problems is a necessary but insufficient condition for successful implementation.
Agendas, Alternatives and Publics Policies. Theory, Politics, and Methods. Edited by Paul A. This example Multiple Streams Theory Essay is published for educational and informational purposes only.He argues that the monopoly of crime by the state—in this case being the warlords—is in order to receive protection from external rivals as well as internal political rivals.
revenue or privilege. In his study of warlordism in Georgia and Tajikistan, Driscoll cites "land reform, property ownership and Seminal moments in China's. Humanity Somalia Case Study Essay A Short History and Summary of Political and Economic Conditions in Somalia Nov 20, History During the 19th century was when modern history began in Somalia with the presence of various European powers that began to utilize Somalia for trade.
A warlord is a leader able to exercise military, economic, and political control over a subnational territory within a sovereign state due to their ability to mobilize loyal armed forces.
These armed forces, usually considered militias, are loyal to the warlord rather than to the state grupobittia.comds have existed throughout much of history, albeit in a variety of different capacities within.
The absence of a single, unifying intellectual framework means that the study of political extremism in sub-Saharan Africa has been characterized by an extreme diversity of intellectual approaches, methodologies, and substantive cases.
Working Papers in African Studies. Click on any of the publications below to find out more about them, or to purchase PDF copies.
History, Corn, and Africa's New Landscapes, —, WP , by James C. McCann A Case Study from Simanjiro District, WP , by Jim Igoe. The African warlord revisited Full Article In Africa's recent history, warlordism has emerged since the end of anti-colonial movements and independence, and has become yet more prevalent since the end of the Cold War.
View all notes This type of analysis has typified the study of warlordism in Africa.
The absence of a single, unifying intellectual framework means that the study of political extremism in sub-Saharan Africa has been characterized by an extreme diversity of intellectual approaches, methodologies, and substantive cases. Reno identifies five key “eras” of anti-state warfare in recent African history, from the anti. The African warlord revisited Full Article In Africa's recent history, warlordism has emerged since the end of anti-colonial movements and independence, and has become yet more prevalent since the end of the Cold War. View all notes This type of analysis has typified the study of warlordism in Africa. 72 Database of FREE History essays - We have thousands of free essays across a wide range of subject areas. Sample History essays!